Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership. The most critical area the Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers.
References One of the most significant developments in the field of organization in recent times is the increasing importance given to human resources. More and more attention is being paid to motivational aspects of human personality, particularly the need for self-esteem, group belonging, and self-actualization.
This new awakening of humanism and humanization all over the world has in fact enlarged the scope of applying principles of human resource management in organizations. Extension organizations in developing countries face the major problems of professional incompetence and lack of motivation among their employees.
Further, many of the agricultural extension departments of these countries do not have a well-defined system of human resource management. Proper planning and management of human resources within extension organizations is essential to increase the capabilities, motivation, and overall effectiveness of extension personnel.
Keeping this in view, this chapter discusses the various dimensions of human resource management as applicable to extension organizations: Human resource planning for extension Human resource planning forecasts the future personnel needs of extension organizations.
With the rapid changes in technology, needs of farmers, market situation, and competitive environment, planning for human resources has become an important, challenging task for extension. Human resource forecasting and human resource audit are the two most important components of this type of planning.
Human resource forecasting refers to predicting an organization's future demand for number, type, and quality of various categories of employees. The assessment of future needs has to be based on analysis of present and future policies and growth trends.
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The techniques of forecasting include the formal expert survey, Delphi technique, statistical analysis, budget and planning analysis, and computer models. Job analysis Job analysis traditionally was done for purposes connected with recruitment, pay, administration, and supervision.
But the increasing complexity of work has made job analysis an important instrument for developing people in organizations. Job analysis requires a systematic collection, evaluation, and organization of information about the job.
This information is collected through interviews, mailed questionnaires, observation, study of records, and similar methods. The collected information becomes a basis for preparing job descriptions and specifications. The job description, or job profile, is a written statement which includes detailed specifications of duties to be performed, responsibilities, and working conditions and indicates what is expected of a job holder.
Extension organizations in developing countries do not have clearly defined job descriptions or job specifications for extension personnel. The training and visit system of extension considerably improved the preparation of job charts, work plans, and time-bound work for different categories of extension personnel.
However, the actual utility of job descriptions in extension organizations is complicated by factors such as work overload, seasonality of extension, the range of cropping systems, and distribution of extension service over a large area Hayward, This shows that job analysis is needed to improve the performance and effectiveness of extension employees.
Job analysis can more effectively contribute towards the development of extension personnel by adopting the following procedures which involve identifying key performance areas KPAs and critical attributes.
Key Performance Areas for Various Categories of Extension Personnel A job description consists of many details, but does not specify key areas which need attention.
Further, it gives the details of what is expected from the current jobholder. The identification of key performance areas helps in role clarity as well as in delegation of functions. This in turn aids in performance appraisal and training.
Generally, four or five key areas for a job are identified. The core extension personnel of developing countries consists of village extension workers, subject-matter specialists, and supervisory staff or extension officers.
Examples of key performance areas of core extension personnel are given below. People in this category 1 make regular and systematic visits to villages and farms to develop rapport with the clientele and to understand their problems; 2 undertake educational activities in the form of meetings, campaigns, demonstrations, field days, training sessions, and exhibitions; and 3 provide advisory services to the farmers and solve their production problems.
Their role is to 1 keep abreast of current recommendations and findings related to farm production by maintaining continuous contact with agricultural research stations; 2 provide feedback to the research system about farmers' problems which need solutions; and 3 train and backstop village extension workers on the latest farm technology and help them in solving field problems.
Supervisory Staff or Extension Officers. People holding these positions 1 plan, organize, coordinate, and implement extension programmes and activities; 2 supervise and monitor the work of field staff, providing guidance, motivation, and evaluation of performance; and 3 coordinate the programme with inter-and intradepartmental agencies.These characteristics of human capital prompted Harlan Cleveland, former President of the World Academy of Art and Science, to observe that “the only limits are the limits to imagination and creativity” They led Aurelio Peccei, founder of the Club of Rome, to argue that human capital is the most underutilized of all forms of capital This entry is concerned with extreme poverty.
The World Bank is the main source for global information on extreme poverty today and it sets the International Poverty Line. The poverty line was revised in —since then, a person is considered to be in extreme poverty if they live on less than international dollars (int.-$) per day.
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Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our + Global Conferenceseries Events with over + Conferences, + Symposiums and + Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business.. Explore and learn more about . Sen’s Capability Approach.
The Capability Approach is defined by its choice of focus upon the moral significance of individuals’ capability of achieving the kind of lives they have reason to value.