An analysis of the reintroduction of gray wolves in yellowstone

The five last known wild Mexican gray wolves were captured in in accordance with an agreement between the United States and Mexico intended to save the critically endangered subspecies.

An analysis of the reintroduction of gray wolves in yellowstone

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Contact Us Wolves Yellowstone National Park ensures the long-term viability of wolves in Greater Yellowstone and provides a place for research on how wolves may affect many aspects of the ecosystem. Inthe US Fish and Wildlife Service listed the northern Rocky Mountain wolf Canis lupus as an endangered species and designated Greater Yellowstone as one of three recovery areas.

From to41 wild wolves from Canada and northwest Montana were released in Yellowstone National Park.

An analysis of the reintroduction of gray wolves in yellowstone

As expected, wolves from the growing population dispersed to establish territories outside the park where they are less protected from human-caused mortalities.

Wolves back are larger than coyotes middle and red foxes front. Worldwide, pack size will depend on the size and abundance of prey. In Yellowstone, average pack size is 10 individuals. The pack is a complex social family, with older members often the alpha male and alpha female and subordinates, each having individual personality traits and roles within the pack.

Wolf Restoration - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)

Packs defend their territory from other, invading packs by howling and scent marking with urine. Wolves consume a wide variety of prey, large and small. They efficiently hunt large prey that other predators cannot usually kill. They also kill bison. Many other animals benefit from wolf kills.

For example, when wolves kill an elk, ravens arrive almost immediately. Coyotes arrive soon after, waiting nearby until the wolves are sated.

Bears will attempt to chase the wolves away, and are usually successful. Many other animals—from magpies to invertebrates—consume the remains. That ratio reversed from toindicating changes in prey vulnerability and availability. The discovery of this change emphasizes the importance of long-term monitoring to understand predator-prey dynamics.

Changes in wolf predation patterns and impacts on prey species like elk are inextricably linked to other factors such as other predators, management of ungulates outside the park, and weather e.

Weather patterns influence forage quality and availability, ultimately impacting elk nutritional condition. Consequently, changes in prey selection and kill rates through time result from complex interactions among these factors. Current NPS research focusses on the relative factors driving wolf predation over the last two decades.

Number An estimated wolves resided in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem as of As of Decemberthere were at least wolves in the park. Eleven packs were noted. In general, wolf numbers have fluctuated between 83 and wolves from to Where to See They inhabit most of the park, peak activity is at dawn and dusk.

The northern range of Yellowstone is one of the best places in the world to watch wolves. Size and Behavior 26—36 inches tall at the shoulder, 4—6 feet long from nose to tail tip.

Males weigh — pounds, females weigh 80— pounds. Home range within the park is — square miles — km2 ; varies with pack size, food availability, and season.

Average lifespan in the park is 4—5 years. Average lifespan outside is 2—3 years. The oldest known wolf to live here was Two main color variations exist in Yellowstone in approximately equal proportions: Prey primarily on hoofed animals.

Give birth to average of five pups in April after a gestation period of 63 days.Reintroduction of the Gray Wolf to Yellowstone National Park: A Case Study By: Natalie Carroll, John B.

Wolves - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)

Dunning, Jr., Arthur Freeman, Constance A. Hallberg, and The cost of the reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in was $, Seventeen gray wolves were Economic analysis by the U.S.

Fish and Wildlife. In Yellowstone, reintroducing wolves in the s generated an additional $35 million each year for the regional economy, simply due to people who come to view wolves, a University of Montana.

In June , after several years and a near-record number of public comments, the Secretary of the Interior signed the Record of Decision for the final EIS for reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho.

A gray wolf watches biologists in Yellowstone National Park, shortly after they fitted it with a tracking collar. The photo dates to , 9 years after wolves were first re-introduced to the U.S. When the gray wolf was eradicated from Yellowstone National Park in the s, more was lost than just the noble and fascinating predator.

In the Valley of the Wolves Reintroduction of the. Yellowstone National Park ensures the long-term viability of wolves in Greater Yellowstone and provides a place for research on how wolves may affect many aspects of the ecosystem.

Wolves - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)