Baozhong Yang Abstract This dissertation thesis address how aggregate shocks affect insurance firms' risk management and asset investment decisions as well as the impact of these decisions on insurance prices and regulation.
Because there is freedom of entry and exit and perfect information, firms will make normal profits and prices will be kept low by competitive pressures. Features of perfect competition Freedom of entry and exit; this will require low sunk costs. All firms produce an identical or homogeneous product.
There is perfect information and knowledge. Diagram for perfect competition The industry price is determined by the interaction of Supply and Demand, leading to a price of Pe. What happens if supernormal profits are made? If supernormal profits are made new firms will be attracted into the industry causing prices to fall.
If firms are making a loss then firms will leave the industry causing price to rise The features of perfect competition are very rare in the real world. However perfect competition is as important economic model to compare other models.
It is often argued that competitive markets have many benefits which stem from this theoretical model. Changes in long run equilibrium 1. The effect of an increase in demand for the industry. If there is an increase in demand there will be an increase in price Therefore the demand curve and hence AR will shift upwards.
This will cause firms to make supernormal profits. This will attract new firms into the market causing price to fall back to the equilibrium of Pe 2.
This will cause supply to fall causing prices to increase. Lowest point on AC curve Firms have to remain efficient otherwise they will go out of business. Firms are unlikely to be dynamically efficient because they have no profits to invest in research and development. If there are high fixed costs, firms will not benefit from efficiencies of scale see more: However, some industries are close.
Here currency is all homogeneous. Also, traders will have access to many different buyers and sellers. There will be good information about relative prices. When buying currency it is easy to compare prices Agricultural markets. In some cases, there are several farmers selling identical products to the market, and many buyers.
At the market, it is easy to compare prices. Therefore, agricultural markets often get close to perfect competition. The internet has made many markets closer to perfect competition because the internet has made it very easy to compare prices, quickly and efficiently perfect information.
Also, the internet has made barriers to entry lower. For example, selling a popular good on the internet through a service like e-bay is close to perfect competition. It is easy to compare the prices of books and buy from the cheapest.
The internet has enabled the price of many books to fall in price so that firms selling books on the internet are only making normal profits.3) One data-intensive problem set – 10%. 4) A presentation of one required article – 10%.
These readings are marked D. Students should email me their top three choices by the second class. Oligopoly market structure exhibits a collusion model,, where a small group of firms, referred to as a cartel, combine together and decide on an agreed price and output, unlike in monopolistic competition market.
The competitive equilibrium is still determined by the zero profit condition, or the intersection of the demand curve and the AC curve (point C in Figure 3), and in the presence of adverse selection (downward sloping MC curve) this leads to under-insurance relative to the social optimum (Q eqm.
Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services The Effect of State Community Rating Regulations on Premiums and Coverage in the Individual forthcoming, Risk Pooling in the Individual Health Insurance Market, Health Services Research , Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect.
The nature of competitive equilibrium depends on whether insurers can observe an insured's total purchases of insurance. If insurers can observe this, an individual will purchase all his insurance from a single agent, and the contract will specify the price but also ration the quantity.