Nineteenth century[ edit ] - Charles Babbage designs the first programmable computer called the "Analytical Engine". This was designed to use punch cards of the type used in Jacquard looms.
Brief history[ edit ] The underlying technology was invented in the later half of the 19th century, including Babbage 's analytical engine and the telegraph. Digital communication became economical for widespread adoption after the invention of the personal computer. Claude Shannona Bell Labs mathematician, is credited for having laid out the foundations of digitalization in his pioneering article, A Mathematical Theory of Communication.
By doing this, it became possible to make copies that were identical to the original. In digital communications, for example, repeating hardware was able to amplify the digital signal and pass it on with no loss of information in the signal. Of equal importance to the revolution was the ability to easily move the digital information between media, and to access or distribute it remotely.
The turning point of the revolution was the change from analogue to digitally recorded music. From the late s, Universities, the Military, and Business developed computer systems, to digitally replicate and automate previously manualy performed mathematical calculations, with the LEO computer being the first commercially available general purpose computer.
A key step toward mass commercialization was the advent of the planar process in by Jean Hoernian employee of Fairchild Semiconductor. This enabled integrated circuits to be mass produced using the techniques of photolithography. From toIntel developed the Intelan early microprocessor that laid the foundations for the microcomputer revolution that began in the s.
The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworkingin which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.
The Whole Earth movement of the s advocated the use of new technology. As digital technology proliferated, and the switch from analog to digital record keeping became the new standard in business, a relatively new job description was popularized, the data entry clerk. Culled from the ranks of secretaries and typists from earlier decades, the data entry clerk's job was to convert analog data customer records, invoices, etc.
Automated teller machinesindustrial robotsCGI in film and television, electronic musicbulletin board systemsand video games all fueled what became the zeitgeist of the s.
Millions of people purchased home computers, making household names of early personal computer manufacturers such as Apple, Commodore, and Tandy. To this day the Commodore 64 is often cited as the best selling computer of all time, having sold 17 million units by some accounts  between and Inthe U.
Census Bureau began collecting data on computer and Internet use in the United States; their first survey showed that 8. Motorola created the first mobile phone, Motorola DynaTacin However, this device used analog communication - digital cell phones were not sold commercially until when the 2G network started to be opened in Finland to accommodate the unexpected demand for cell phones that was becoming apparent in the late s.Beyond the Basics: Calculators in the 20th Century.
Calculators weren’t keeping up. Business and science, engineering and commerce, factories and insurance companies all expanded rapidly in the Industrial Revolution. You can forget inventions like air conditioning, television, the computer and the Internet.
The single most important invention of the 20th . The Computer Revolution/Timeline. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Mid-late nineteenth century mechanical and electromechanical adding machines developed and widely used.
Alan Kay gives a lecture entitled The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet. The 20th century Technology from to Recent history is notoriously difficult to write, because of the mass of material and the problem of distinguishing the significant from the insignificant among events that have virtually the power of contemporary experience.
The Digital Revolution, the latter half of the 20th century. Analogous to the Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution, By , 15% of all U.S. households owned a computer, and nearly 30% of households with children under the age of 18 owned one.
You can forget inventions like air conditioning, television, the computer and the Internet. The single most important invention of the 20th century was the transistor, according to some.