The few dozen who died while incarcerated as POWs were buried at Ft. Its military had only brief experience with a limited POW population in the last world war, and was unprepared for basic logistical considerations such as food, clothing and housing requirements of the prisoners. Upon arriving in America, the comfort of the Pullman cars that carried them to their prison camps amazed the Germans, : They stayed in camps  in 46 states; a complete list may not exist because of the small, temporary nature of some camps and the frequent use of satellite or sub-camps administratively part of larger units.
Ancient times[ edit ] Engraving of Nubian prisoners, Abu SimbelEgypt, 13th century BC For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved.
Typically, little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more likely to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture women, a practice known as raptio ; the Rape of the Sabines was a large mass abduction by the founders of Rome.
Typically women had no rightsand were held legally as chattel. For this he was eventually canonized. Later, Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. In the later Middle Agesa number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies.
In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the 13th century Albigensian Crusade and the Northern Crusades.
Noblemen could hope to be ransomed ; their families would have to send to their captors large sums of wealth commensurate with the social status of the captive. In feudal Japan there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
In Termezon the Oxus: Aside from those who converted, most were ransomed or enslaved. Modern times[ edit ] Russian and Japanese prisoners being interrogated by Chinese officials during the Boxer Rebellion.
The Peace of Westphaliawhich ended the Thirty Years' Warestablished the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There also evolved the right of paroleFrench for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges.
If he swore not to escape, he could gain better accommodations and the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity.
European settlers captured in North America[ edit ] Further information: American Revolution prisoners of war Early historical narratives of captured colonial Europeans, including perspectives of literate women captured by the indigenous peoples of North America, exist in some number.
The writings of Mary Rowlandsoncaptured in the brutal fighting of King Philip's Warare an example. Such narratives enjoyed some popularity, spawning a genre of the captivity narrativeand had lasting influence on the body of early American literature, most notably through the legacy of James Fenimore Cooper 's Last of the Mohicans.
Some Native Americans continued to capture Europeans and use them both as labourers and bargaining chips into the 19th century; see for example John R. Jewittan Englishman who wrote a memoir about his years as a captive of the Nootka people on the Pacific Northwest coast from — French Revolutionary wars and Napoleonic wars[ edit ] The earliest known purposely built prisoner-of-war camp was established at Norman CrossEngland in to house the increasing number of prisoners from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
The lowest number recorded was 3, in October and 6, on 10 April was the highest number of prisoners recorded in any official document. Norman Cross was intended to be a model depot providing the most humane treatment of prisoners of war.
The British government went to great lengths to provide food of a quality at least equal to that available to locals.
The senior officer from each quadrangle was permitted to inspect the food as it was delivered to the prison to ensure it was of sufficient quality. Despite the generous supply and quality of food, some prisoners died of starvation after gambling away their rations.
Most of the men held in the prison were low-ranking soldiers and sailors, including midshipmen and junior officers, with a small number of privateers. About senior officers and some civilians "of good social standing", mainly passengers on captured ships and the wives of some officers, were given parole d'honneur outside the prison, mainly in Peterborough although some further afield in NorthamptonPlymouthMelrose and Abergavenny.
They were afforded the courtesy of their rank within English society. The Leipzig citizen Rochlitz remarked in his account about the Battle of Leipzigthat large crowds of French POWs were held on fields outside the town, begged passersby for food, and that most of them didn't survive this ordeal.
Prisoner exchanges[ edit ] The extensive period of conflict during the American Revolutionary War and Napoleonic Wars —followed by the Anglo-American War ofled to the emergence of a cartel system for the exchange of prisonerseven while the belligerents were at war.
A cartel was usually arranged by the respective armed service for the exchange of like-ranked personnel. The aim was to achieve a reduction in the number of prisoners held, while at the same time alleviating shortages of skilled personnel in the home country.
American Civil War[ edit ] Main article: American Civil War prison camps At the start of the civil war a system of paroles operated.
Captives agreed not to fight until they were officially exchanged. Meanwhile, they were held in camps run by their own army where they were paid but not allowed to perform any military duties. In the late summer ofa year after the Dix-Hill Cartel was suspended; Confederate officials approached Union General Benjamin Butler, Union Commissioner of Exchange, about resuming the cartel and including the black prisoners.
Butler contacted Grant for guidance on the issue, and Grant responded to Butler on August 18, with his now famous statement.
He rejected the offer, stating in essence, that the Union could afford to leave their men in captivity, the Confederacy could not.Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.
Hegdahl's enlistment photo and a photo of the sailor in captivity. Certain he could be tortured for information, the Communists tried to get Hegdahl to write anti-American and anti-war propaganda.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed regardbouddhiste.com earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates to Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the.
Prisoners of War Essay - Throughout history, prisoners of war have been mistreated. In the early history of warfare, there was recognition of a prisoner of war status. American Privateer writes home from Dartmoor Prison while he is a Prisoner of War in After the United States entered World War II in , the government of the United Kingdom requested American help with housing prisoners of war due to a housing shortage in Britain.
The United States agreed to house them, : 5 although it was not prepared.